For millennia, we mostly had to make do with natural pigments and dyes, but in the last 300 years or so, chemical synthesis has revolutionized the colors of our world.

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Sources:
Prussian blue
https://www.chemistryworld.com/podcasts/prussian-blue/6101.article
https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/2724251#section=Top
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/molecule-of-the-week/archive/p/prussian-blue.html
https://www.fastcompany.com/1588812/long-strange-history-prussian-blue
http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mainzv/HIST/bulletin_open_access/v33-2/v33-2%20p61-67.pdf
http://www.webexhibits.org/pigments/indiv/overview/ultramarine.html
http://camaonline.net/artist-material-prussian-blue-pigment/
https://www.britannica.com/science/color/The-perception-of-colour
https://books.google.com/books?id=qsP7mmhqvj4C&pg=PA75
https://www.fda.gov/drugs/emergencypreparedness/bioterrorismanddrugpreparedness/ucm130337.htm
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235412785_Prussian_blue_as_an_antidote_against_radioactives_Thallium_and_Cesium_poisoning

Mauveine
https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/molecule-of-the-week/archive/m/molecule-of-the-week-mauveine.html
http://www.rsc.org/Chemsoc/Activities/Perkin/2006/minisite_perkin_fashion_non_flash.html
http://www.victorianweb.org/science/perkin.html
http://www.pysanky.info/Chemical_Dyes/History.html
http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/motm/perkin.html
http://library.si.edu/exhibition/color-in-a-new-light/making
http://blog.melscience.com/en/2015-02-16-british-queen-and-chemistry.html
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/in-ancient-rome-purple-dye-was-made-from-snails-1239931/

YInMn
https://www.inc.com/betsy-mikel/science-discovered-a-new-color-so-crayola-made-it-into-a-crayon.html
http://chemistry.oregonstate.edu/content/story-yinmn-blue
https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/kidspost/the-newest-crayola-crayon-color-comes-straight-from-the-lab/2017/05/05/f875ff3a-31d3-11e7-9dec-764dc781686f_story.html?utm_term=.60d368012ae6
http://cen.acs.org/articles/95/i26/Chemistrys-New-Black-Blue.html
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja9080666
http://www.npr.org/2016/07/16/485696248/a-chemist-accidentally-creates-a-new-blue-then-what
http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2016/sep/new-colors-new-world-pigments-continue-evolve-accidental-blue-discovery
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b01639
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Images:
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-3d-blue-sedans-in-a-row/494980853/popup?sq=blue%20car/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-birthday-cupcake/176822795/popup?sq=green%20cupcake/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-photo-mobile-phone-cover/462528861/popup?sq=M|Images%20similar%20to:%20462528861|462528861/f=CPIHVX/s=DynamicRank
http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/stock-illustration-rainbows-transparent-set/486002674
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cinnabar_on_Dolomite.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vermilion#/media/File:Villa_Mystery_fresco.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Indigofera_tinctoria1.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:IndigoDyedYarn.JPG
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prussian_blue#/media/File:Pigment_Berliner_Blau.JPG
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carmine#/media/File:Dactylopius_coccus_(Barlovento)_04_ies.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultramarine#/media/File:Lapis-lazuli_hg.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultramarine#/media/File:Sassoferrato_-_Jungfrun_i_b%C3%B6n.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penny_Blue#/media/File:Onepennyblue.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prussian_blue#/media/File:Vincent_van_Gogh_Starry_Night.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrian_purple#/media/File:Haustellum_brandaris_000.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Shroud_of_Charlemagne_manufactured_in_Constantinople_814.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Historische_Farbstoffsammlung_DSC00350.JPG
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YInMn_Blue#/media/File:YInMn_Blue_-_cropped.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YInMn_Blue#/media/File:YMnO3_P63mmc_Wiki_Image.png