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When scientists first split the atom, they didn’t realize what they’d done until physicist Lise Meitner figured out they had discovered what we now call nuclear fission.

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Sources:
https://www.sdsc.edu/ScienceWomen/meitner.html
https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/200712/physicshistory.cfm
https://www.chemheritage.org/historical-profile/otto-hahn-lise-meitner-and-fritz-strassmann
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/lisemeitner.htm
http://bnrc.berkeley.edu/Famous-Women-in-Physical-Sciences-and-Engineering/lise-meitner.html
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ed066p373
http://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/meitner/index.html
https://history.aip.org/exhibits/mod/fission/fission1/03.html
https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1944/hahn-lecture.pdf
http://www.iop.org/resources/topic/archive/curie-meitner/page_65216.html
https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/publications/magazines/bulletin/bull4-0/04004700911su.pdf

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lise_Meitner12.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lise_Meitner12.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Otto_Hahn_und_Lise_Meitner.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hahn_Meitner_1912.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beta-minus_Decay.svg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nuclear_Fission_Experimental_Apparatus_1938_-_Deutsches_Museum_-_Munich.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Barium_unter_Argon_Schutzgas_Atmosph%C3%A4re.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Otto_Frisch_ID_badge.png
N
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kerncentrale_Doel_in_werking.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ivy_Mike_-_mushroom_cloud.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:R1_KTH.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Meitner_crater_on_Venus.jpg
https://www.flickr.com/photos/smithsonian/4405642879/in/photolist-7Hj58Z-8gsVjm-SkZmGu-Amthpv-dJUhN2-9LTMEX-pwpgEz-ngAfn2-X3MxUd-h7rAMq-WMyN3w-h7sB8x-h7r8Ek-h7sphP-hyd1MS-iF3Zs4-h7rmC5-h7ri9m-hydV94-hycY83-D5d8Ra-h7rgB1-h7rz2w-hycs23-hydWxB-57x9o5-MvPgnq-4AYL1h-dJUkG8-7z13pW-htFmSj-gMYjHH-7z13iA-hsSNM6-dJUiuv-DpyMQD-VGmP8i-mHTndN-oNzVo8-6yUoT-4AYKZu-bxaN3X-8Qt9Zo-9LTzDF-hsSHq4-dNfuPq-dN9MXR-dJZHsm-91UA8t-pKoiJ6