Long before we had cameras scientists still needed visual documentation—enter the science illustrator!

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Sources:
Vesalius
https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/shakespeare/fourhumors.html
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/358129
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_02

Maria Sibylla Merian
http://public.gettysburg.edu/~ketherid/Merian%201st%20ecologist.pdf
https://nmwa.org/explore/artist-profiles/maria-sibylla-merian
http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/merian/
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Journals/TAPA/51/Spontaneous_Generation*.html

Moses Harris
https://archive.org/details/Aurelian00Harr
http://web.mit.edu/22.51/www/Extras/color_theory/color.html
http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/12/101012413/
http://facweb.cs.depaul.edu/sgrais/color_wheel.htm

The Scott Sisters
https://australianmuseum.net.au/beauty-from-nature-art-of-the-scott-sisters
https://australianmuseum.net.au/a-biography-of-the-scott-sisters

The Blaschkas
http://www.cmog.org/article/blaschkas-glass-models-invertebrate-animals-1863-1890
http://blaschkagallery.mannlib.cornell.edu/intro.php
http://hmnh.harvard.edu/glass-flowers

Beatrix Potter
http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160215-beatrix-potter-pioneering-scientist-or-passionate-amateur
https://www.linnean.org/the-society/news/2012/08/06/august-2012-beatrix-potter
https://books.google.com/books?id=7f6K7tgnMYoC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Ramón y Cajal
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1906/cajal-bio.html
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1906/cajal-facts.html
http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/01/26/511455876/art-exhibition-celebrates-drawings-by-the-founder-of-modern-neuroscience
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnana.2015.00018/full